FANDOM


m (Remove leftover from an older revision of the page (used to be a mention of D.D. Survivor, which is now discussed in a separate sentence).)
m (Banishing Face-down)
 
(42 intermediate revisions by 16 users not shown)
Line 5: Line 5:
 
}}
 
}}
 
{{Infobox/Archetype/ExtendedName
 
{{Infobox/Archetype/ExtendedName
| kanji = {{Ruby|除|じょ}}{{Ruby|外|がい}}<br>Formerly: ゲームから{{ruby|取|と}}り{{ruby|除|のぞ}}く, then ゲームから{{Ruby|除|じょ}}{{Ruby|外|がい}}
+
| kanji = {{Ruby|除|じょ}}{{Ruby|外|がい}}<br>
| japanese = 除外<br>Formerly: ゲームから取り除く, then ゲームから除外
+
Formerly: ゲームから{{ruby||と}}{{ruby||のぞ}}く, then ゲームから{{Ruby||じょ}}{{Ruby||がい}}
| furigana = じょがい<br>Formerly: ゲームからとりのぞく, then ゲームからじょがい
+
| japanese = 除外<br>
| romaji = Jogai<br>Formerly: Gēmu kara Torinozoku, then Gēmu kara Jogai
+
Formerly: ゲームから取り除く, then ゲームから除外
| japanese translated = Exclude<br>Formerly: Remove from the Game, then Exclude from the Game
+
| furigana = じょがい<br>
| english = banish<br>Formerly: remove from play
+
Formerly: ゲームからとりのぞく, then ゲームからじょがい
| french = bannir<br>Formerly: retirer du jeu
+
| romaji = jogai<br>
| german = verbannen<br>Formerly: aus dem Spiel entfernen
+
Formerly: gēmu kara torinozoku, then gēmu kara jogai
| italian = bandire<br>Formerly: rimuovere dal gioco
+
| japanese translated = exclude<br>
| korean = 제외 (除外) ''Je-oe''<br>Formerly: 게임에서 제거 (Game ?? 除去 ??) ''Geim-eseon Jegeo'', then 게임에서 제외 (Game ?? 除外) ''Geim-eseon Je-oe''
+
Formerly: remove from the game, then exclude from the game
| chinese=從遊戲中除外 ''Cóng Yóuxì zhōng Chúwài / Cung4 Jau4 hei3 zung1 Ceoi4 ngoi6''<br>Formerly: 從遊戲中移除 ''Cóng Yóuxì zhōng Yíchú / Cung4 Jau4 hei3 zung1 Ji4 ceoi4''
+
| english = banish<br>
| portuguese=banir<br>Formerly: remover de jogo
+
Formerly: remove from play
| spanish = desterrar<br>Formerly: retirar del juego
+
| french = bannir<br>
  +
Formerly: retirer du jeu
  +
| german = verbannen<br>
  +
Formerly: aus dem Spiel entfernen
  +
| italian = bandire<br>
  +
Formerly: rimuovere dal gioco
  +
| korean = 제외 (除外) ''je-oe''<br>
  +
Formerly: 게임에서 제거 (game ?? 除去 ??) ''geim-eseon jegeo'', then 게임에서 제외 (game ?? 除外) ''geim-eseon je-oe''
  +
| chinese = 從遊戲中除外 ''cóng yóuxì zhōng chúwài / cung4 jau4 hei3 zung1 ceoi4 ngoi6''<br>
  +
Formerly: 從遊戲中移除 ''cóng yóuxì zhōng yíchú / cung4 jau4 hei3 zung1 ji4 ceoi4''
  +
| portuguese = banir<br>
  +
Formerly: remover de jogo
  +
| spanish = desterrar<br>
  +
Formerly: retirar del juego
 
| english anime = remove from the game
 
| english anime = remove from the game
 
}}
 
}}
 
{{Infobox/Archetype/End}}
 
{{Infobox/Archetype/End}}
  +
'''Banish '''(Japanese: {{Ruby|除|じょ}}{{Ruby|外|がい}} ''Jogai'', lit. "exclude"), known as '''remove from play''' prior to the [[Problem-Solving Card Text]], is a term used to describe the act of putting a card away from the game. Banished cards are not in any particular [[zone]]. Cards can only be banished by a card that uses the word "Banish" (or older terms).
   
[[File:DimensionalPrison-SDCR-EN-C-1E.png|200px|right]]
+
Because banished cards are not in any particular [[zone]], a player can place their banished cards anywhere in the play area that is not a zone. They are typically placed either above or to the right of the [[Graveyard Zone]], or just under the field (directly in front of the player). Most video games place it to the right or above of the Graveyard.
'''Banish''', formerly known as '''remove from play''' prior to the [[Problem-Solving Card Text]] update and called '''exclude''' (Japanese: {{Ruby|除|じょ}}{{Ruby|外|がい}} ''Jogai'') in the ''[[OCG]]'', is a term used to describe the act of moving card(s) to the [[Banished Zone]].
 
   
Cards can only be banished by a card that uses the word "banish" (or "remove from play" for cards without [[Problem-Solving Card Text]]).
+
==Mechanics==
  +
[[File:DimensionalPrison-SDCR-EN-C-1E.png|150px|right|"[[Dimensional Prison]]"]]
  +
Banishing a card(s) causes them to [[Leaves the field|leave the field]], and is stacked [[face-up]] (by default, unless stated otherwise) in a special pile outside the playing field. These face-up cards, and the total number of Banished cards are [[Public knowledge]]. Banishing a card also does not specify the place the card(s) will end up.
   
Banished cards cannot be [[destroy]]ed. [[Return]]ing a banished card to the [[Graveyard]] does not count as [[send]]ing that card to the Graveyard. Unless banished [[face-down]], banished cards are [[public knowledge]]. Also, the number of banished cards is public knowledge.
+
If a Token Monster(s) would be banished, it simply disappears, and is not stacked with banished cards.
   
A banished card is always returned to its [[owner]]'s [[possession]]. If a card controlled by a player that is not its owner is temporarily banished by a card like "[[Interdimensional Matter Transporter]]", while banished it will be in the [[possession]] of its owner, but when it returns to the [[field]] it will return to the side of the field of the player that controlled it when it was banished.<ref>{{cite book |author=Konami |title=Yu-Gi-Oh! Official Card Game - Perfect Rulebook 2015 |url=https://ygorganization.com/perfectrulebook/ |page=45}}</ref>
+
Banished cards cannot be [[destroy]]ed. [[Return]]ing a banished card to the [[Graveyard]] is not considered to be [[send]]ing that card to the Graveyard, and can be done even if a card like "[[Dimensional Fissure]]" is active.
   
The Banished Zone can be placed anywhere on the table, as it has no actual place in the game since it is not actually a [[Zone]] (as demonstrated from its absence on official play mats). However, it is typically placed either above or to the right of the [[Graveyard Zone]], or just under the field (right in front of the player). Most video games place it to the right of the Graveyard.
+
=== Banishing Face-down ===
  +
{{Main|plural = no|Banishes face-down}}
  +
In addition to normal face-up banishes, several cards can banish cards face-down. Cards banished face-down are not public knowledge, and any of its properties cannot be specified.
   
==Banishing face-down==
+
Cards banished face-down can only be looked at by its [[possess]]or, but the number of banished face-down cards owned by either player is still public knowledge. They are also unaffected by cards that specify properties of the banished card, other than the card that banished it.
By default, cards are banished [[face-up]], and banished cards are public knowledge. However, several cards can [[Banishes face-down|banish cards face-down]], such as "[[Goblin Circus]]", "[[Ghostrick Skeleton]]" and "[[Xyz Override]]"; a card that is banished face-down is not public knowledge and can thus only be looked at by its owner. A card that is banished face-down cannot be used for any purpose except that prescribed on the card that banished it.
+
  +
Token Monsters cannot be banished face-down, and cannot be targeted with such Effects.
  +
  +
If a card is banished face-down, it cannot activate its own "[[Leaves the field]]" effect.
  +
  +
== Temporary Banish ==
  +
A Temporary banish can be identified with a timing statement directly behind the word "banish", telling when to return the card. Returning a banished card(s) to the field does not start a chain.
  +
  +
If a temporarily banished card will not be able to return to the field, due to having no appropriate open zone to place in, or is prevented (such as by "[[Prohibition]]"), then it will be placed in the Graveyard when it would return.
  +
  +
If a card [[control]]led by a player that is not its [[owner]] is temporarily banished by a card like "[[Interdimensional Matter Transporter]]", it will be in the [[owner|owner's]] [[possess]]ion, but it will return to the player who control it when it was banished. However, if the effect that gave temporary control of that card to the opponent is no longer active, it will then return to the original owner.<ref>
  +
{{cite book
  +
|author = Konami
  +
|title = Yu-Gi-Oh! Official Card Game - Perfect Rulebook 2015
  +
|url = https://ygorganization.com/perfectrulebook/
  +
|page = 45}}</ref>
  +
  +
If a card would be banished when it leaves the field is temporarily banished by another card effect, it will not return to the field when it should.
  +
  +
If an effect that banishes temporarily targets a face-down card, the target will be banished face-down, and will return to the field face-down.
  +
  +
=== Info on cards affected by Temporary Banish ===
  +
When a card stops being face-up, in this case, because of being temporarily banished, it will lose some specific information/applications on it.<ref>https://ygorganization.com/learnrulingspart13/</ref>
  +
  +
==== Info lost ====
  +
*Whether if it was placed on the field by specific method or not ([[Special Summon|Special Summoned]] by certain effect, Tributing a certain monster for [[Tribute Summon]], etc).
  +
*Any previously applied effects.
  +
  +
==== Info not lost ====
  +
  +
===== Monster cards =====
  +
* Material used for its Summon.
  +
* Its time of Summon.
  +
* Its place before being Summoned.
   
 
==History==
 
==History==
Originally, there were few cards which could banish other cards (called "remove from play" at the time), with some of the first being "[[Soul Release]]" and "[[Banisher of the Light]]". The first card to return them was "[[Miracle Dig]]".
+
Originally, there were few cards which could banish other cards (called "remove from play" at the time), with some of the first being "[[Soul Release]]" and "[[Banisher of the Light]]". The first card to recover banished cards was "[[Miracle Dig]]".
   
However, over time, banishing has become a popular theme with several cards to go with it ([[Chaos]] and "[[D.D.]]" cards). In turn, more cards were created to bring them back, including "[[D.D.M. - Different Dimension Master]]", "[[Dimension Fusion]]", "[[Dimension Explosion]]", "[[Burial from a Different Dimension]]", and "[[Leviair the Sea Dragon]]".
+
However, over time, banishing cards has become a popular theme with several cards to go with it (such as [[Chaos]] and "[[D.D.]]" cards). In turn, more cards were created to bring banished cards back, including "[[D.D.M. - Different Dimension Master]]", "[[Dimension Fusion]]", "[[Dimension Explosion]]", "[[Burial from a Different Dimension]]", and "[[Leviair the Sea Dragon]]".
   
In the Problem-Solving Card Text update, "remove from play" was renamed "banish" to make card texts less "clunky" and easier to understand, because in normal English "remove" and "from play" would often be broken up making many card texts unclear. Also, the term was often confused with "removed from the field", which was renamed "[[leaves the field]]" for this reason.<ref name="part2">{{cite web|url=https://yugiohblog.konami.com/articles/?p=2915|title=Problem-Solving Card Text, Part 2: New Words & Phrases|last=Tewart|first=Kevin|authorlink=Kevin Tewart|publisher=[[Konami]]|date=May 23, 2011|accessdate=July 28, 2011}}</ref>
+
In the [[Problem-Solving Card Text]] update, "remove from play" was renamed "banish". This was both to make card text easier to understand and to distinguish it from the similarly-named "removed from the field", which was renamed "[[leaves the field]]" in the same update for this reason.<ref name="part2">{{cite web
  +
|url = https://yugiohblog.konami.com/articles/?p=2915
  +
|title = Problem-Solving Card Text, Part 2: New Words & Phrases
  +
|last = Tewart
  +
|first = Kevin
  +
|authorlink = Kevin Tewart
  +
|publisher = [[Konami]]
  +
|date = May 23, 2011
  +
|accessdate = July 28, 2011}}
  +
</ref>
   
 
Thematically, cards which banish tend to either imply that the card's soul is being removed (e.g. "[[Kycoo the Ghost Destroyer]]", "[[Bazoo the Soul Eater]]") or are sent to another dimension (e.g. the "[[D.D.]]" [[series]]).
 
Thematically, cards which banish tend to either imply that the card's soul is being removed (e.g. "[[Kycoo the Ghost Destroyer]]", "[[Bazoo the Soul Eater]]") or are sent to another dimension (e.g. the "[[D.D.]]" [[series]]).
  +
  +
While the location that banished cards are placed does not have an official name, official sources occasionally refer to it as the Banished Zone<ref>[https://yugiohblog.konami.com/?p=25824 YCS Mexico City: Top 8 Feature Match: Ismael Campos Altamirano vs. Salvador Molina Ochoa]</ref> or banished pile<ref>[https://yugiohblog.konami.com/?p=6039 Yu-Gi-Oh! TRADING CARD GAME » Round 5 Feature Match: Astro Marc Hahn vs. Botanist Willie Newsome]</ref> (removed zone<ref>[https://yugiohblog.konami.com/?p=3873 Public Event Prize Card Playoffs Semifinal: Jack Hoyt VS Matthew Abrams]</ref> or removed from play pile<ref>[https://yugiohblog.konami.com/?p=2748 Yu-Gi-Oh! TRADING CARD GAME » Round 6 Feature Match: William Erker vs. David Sanville]</ref> prior to the Problem-Solving Card Text update), despite it not being a [[zone]]. These terms are never used in [[card text]]s or official ruling materials; cards in this location are simply referred to as "banished cards".
   
 
==Deck theme==
 
==Deck theme==
 
{{main|Macro}}
 
{{main|Macro}}
Since many Decks rely on the Graveyard, Decks that rely on the effects of "[[Dimensional Fissure]]", "[[Macro Cosmos]]", "[[Banisher of the Light]]", and "[[Banisher of the Radiance]]" have grown in power. Being able to shut down an opponents Graveyard plus having "[[D.D. Survivor]]", an 1800 [[ATK]] monster that keeps returning every time it's banished while face-up, have shown themselves to be powerful Decks. "[[D.D. Scout Plane]]" is also incredibly useful in these Decks: if it is banished from your hand or Deck, it will be [[Special Summon]]ed. The main weakness of these Decks is the fact that it is not difficult to remove the card that banishes other cards; "[[Imperial Iron Wall]]" and "[[Chaos Hunter]]" counter such Decks with ease.
+
Since many Decks rely on the Graveyard, Decks that rely on the effects of "[[Dimensional Fissure]]", "[[Macro Cosmos]]", "[[Banisher of the Light]]", and "[[Banisher of the Radiance]]" have grown in power. Being able to shut down an opponents Graveyard plus having "[[D.D. Survivor]]", an 1800 [[ATK]] monster that keeps returning every time it's banished while face-up, have shown themselves to be powerful Decks. "[[D.D. Scout Plane]]" is also incredibly useful in these Decks: if it is banished from your hand or Deck, it will be [[Special Summon]]ed. The main weakness of these Decks is the fact that it is not difficult to remove the card that banishes other cards, and cards like "[[Imperial Iron Wall]]" and "[[Chaos Hunter]]" counter such Decks with ease.
   
 
''[[Structure Deck: Advent of the Emperor]]''/''[[The Dark Emperor Structure Deck]]'' revolves around banishing.
 
''[[Structure Deck: Advent of the Emperor]]''/''[[The Dark Emperor Structure Deck]]'' revolves around banishing.
   
 
==Anime==
 
==Anime==
In ''[[Yu-Gi-Oh! (anime)|Yu-Gi-Oh!]]'', if a [[Duel Disk]] is connected to a [[Dueling Arena]], the banished cards are put where the [[Graveyard Zone]] of the Dueling Arena is.
+
In ''[[Yu-Gi-Oh! (anime)|Yu-Gi-Oh!]]'', if a [[Duel Disk]] is connected to a [[Dueling Arena]], the banished cards were put where the [[Graveyard Zone]] of the Dueling Arena is. If not, the banished cards were placed in the Duelist's pockets.
   
 
In ''[[Yu-Gi-Oh! 5D's]]'', cards being banished are depicted as being sucked into a black vortex.
 
In ''[[Yu-Gi-Oh! 5D's]]'', cards being banished are depicted as being sucked into a black vortex.
   
In ''[[Yu-Gi-Oh! ZEXAL]]'', monsters being banished or Special Summoned from the Banished Zone sometimes enter in and emerge from portals identical to the Graveyard's one, but green.
+
In ''[[Yu-Gi-Oh! ZEXAL]]'', monsters being banished or Special Summoned while banished sometimes enter in and emerge from portals identical to the Graveyard's one, but green.
  +
  +
In ''[[Yu-Gi-Oh! ARC-V]]'', cards banished from the Graveyard disintegrate with a vortex, cards banished from the field disintegrate and scatter, and cards banished from the hand disintegrate into a purple sphere. However, it is unclear where these cards are kept in a duel disk.
   
In ''[[Yu-Gi-Oh! ARC-V]]'', cards banished from the Graveyard disintegrate with a vortex, cards banished from the field disintegrate and scatter, and cards banished from the hand disintegrate into a purple sphere.
+
In ''[[Yu-Gi-Oh! VRAINS]]'', cards banished from the GY are disintegrated within a high-tech-appearing vortex interface.
   
==References==
+
== References ==
<references/>
+
<references />
   
 
{{Gameplay}}
 
{{Gameplay}}

Latest revision as of 12:33, November 28, 2019

Banish

BanishedGemKnights
Various "Gem-Knight" monsters banished by "Fragment Fusion" in Yu-Gi-Oh! ARC-V

Japanese

(じょ) (がい)
Formerly: ゲームから () (のぞ) く, then ゲームから (じょ) (がい)

Japanese (ruby)

じょがい
Formerly: ゲームからとりのぞく, then ゲームからじょがい

Japanese (base text)

除外
Formerly: ゲームから取り除く, then ゲームから除外

Japanese (romanized)

jogai
Formerly: gēmu kara torinozoku, then gēmu kara jogai

Japanese (translated)

exclude
Formerly: remove from the game, then exclude from the game

English

banish
Formerly: remove from play

English (anime)

remove from the game

Banish (Japanese: (じょ) (がい) Jogai, lit. "exclude"), known as remove from play prior to the Problem-Solving Card Text, is a term used to describe the act of putting a card away from the game. Banished cards are not in any particular zone. Cards can only be banished by a card that uses the word "Banish" (or older terms).

Because banished cards are not in any particular zone, a player can place their banished cards anywhere in the play area that is not a zone. They are typically placed either above or to the right of the Graveyard Zone, or just under the field (directly in front of the player). Most video games place it to the right or above of the Graveyard.

MechanicsEdit

DimensionalPrison-SDCR-EN-C-1E

Banishing a card(s) causes them to leave the field, and is stacked face-up (by default, unless stated otherwise) in a special pile outside the playing field. These face-up cards, and the total number of Banished cards are Public knowledge. Banishing a card also does not specify the place the card(s) will end up.

If a Token Monster(s) would be banished, it simply disappears, and is not stacked with banished cards.

Banished cards cannot be destroyed. Returning a banished card to the Graveyard is not considered to be sending that card to the Graveyard, and can be done even if a card like "Dimensional Fissure" is active.

Banishing Face-down Edit

In addition to normal face-up banishes, several cards can banish cards face-down. Cards banished face-down are not public knowledge, and any of its properties cannot be specified.

Cards banished face-down can only be looked at by its possessor, but the number of banished face-down cards owned by either player is still public knowledge. They are also unaffected by cards that specify properties of the banished card, other than the card that banished it.

Token Monsters cannot be banished face-down, and cannot be targeted with such Effects.

If a card is banished face-down, it cannot activate its own "Leaves the field" effect.

Temporary Banish Edit

A Temporary banish can be identified with a timing statement directly behind the word "banish", telling when to return the card. Returning a banished card(s) to the field does not start a chain.

If a temporarily banished card will not be able to return to the field, due to having no appropriate open zone to place in, or is prevented (such as by "Prohibition"), then it will be placed in the Graveyard when it would return.

If a card controlled by a player that is not its owner is temporarily banished by a card like "Interdimensional Matter Transporter", it will be in the owner's possession, but it will return to the player who control it when it was banished. However, if the effect that gave temporary control of that card to the opponent is no longer active, it will then return to the original owner.[1]

If a card would be banished when it leaves the field is temporarily banished by another card effect, it will not return to the field when it should.

If an effect that banishes temporarily targets a face-down card, the target will be banished face-down, and will return to the field face-down.

Info on cards affected by Temporary Banish Edit

When a card stops being face-up, in this case, because of being temporarily banished, it will lose some specific information/applications on it.[2]

Info lost Edit

  • Whether if it was placed on the field by specific method or not (Special Summoned by certain effect, Tributing a certain monster for Tribute Summon, etc).
  • Any previously applied effects.

Info not lost Edit

Monster cards Edit
  • Material used for its Summon.
  • Its time of Summon.
  • Its place before being Summoned.

HistoryEdit

Originally, there were few cards which could banish other cards (called "remove from play" at the time), with some of the first being "Soul Release" and "Banisher of the Light". The first card to recover banished cards was "Miracle Dig".

However, over time, banishing cards has become a popular theme with several cards to go with it (such as Chaos and "D.D." cards). In turn, more cards were created to bring banished cards back, including "D.D.M. - Different Dimension Master", "Dimension Fusion", "Dimension Explosion", "Burial from a Different Dimension", and "Leviair the Sea Dragon".

In the Problem-Solving Card Text update, "remove from play" was renamed "banish". This was both to make card text easier to understand and to distinguish it from the similarly-named "removed from the field", which was renamed "leaves the field" in the same update for this reason.[3]

Thematically, cards which banish tend to either imply that the card's soul is being removed (e.g. "Kycoo the Ghost Destroyer", "Bazoo the Soul Eater") or are sent to another dimension (e.g. the "D.D." series).

While the location that banished cards are placed does not have an official name, official sources occasionally refer to it as the Banished Zone[4] or banished pile[5] (removed zone[6] or removed from play pile[7] prior to the Problem-Solving Card Text update), despite it not being a zone. These terms are never used in card texts or official ruling materials; cards in this location are simply referred to as "banished cards".

Deck themeEdit

Since many Decks rely on the Graveyard, Decks that rely on the effects of "Dimensional Fissure", "Macro Cosmos", "Banisher of the Light", and "Banisher of the Radiance" have grown in power. Being able to shut down an opponents Graveyard plus having "D.D. Survivor", an 1800 ATK monster that keeps returning every time it's banished while face-up, have shown themselves to be powerful Decks. "D.D. Scout Plane" is also incredibly useful in these Decks: if it is banished from your hand or Deck, it will be Special Summoned. The main weakness of these Decks is the fact that it is not difficult to remove the card that banishes other cards, and cards like "Imperial Iron Wall" and "Chaos Hunter" counter such Decks with ease.

Structure Deck: Advent of the Emperor/The Dark Emperor Structure Deck revolves around banishing.

AnimeEdit

In Yu-Gi-Oh!, if a Duel Disk is connected to a Dueling Arena, the banished cards were put where the Graveyard Zone of the Dueling Arena is. If not, the banished cards were placed in the Duelist's pockets.

In Yu-Gi-Oh! 5D's, cards being banished are depicted as being sucked into a black vortex.

In Yu-Gi-Oh! ZEXAL, monsters being banished or Special Summoned while banished sometimes enter in and emerge from portals identical to the Graveyard's one, but green.

In Yu-Gi-Oh! ARC-V, cards banished from the Graveyard disintegrate with a vortex, cards banished from the field disintegrate and scatter, and cards banished from the hand disintegrate into a purple sphere. However, it is unclear where these cards are kept in a duel disk.

In Yu-Gi-Oh! VRAINS, cards banished from the GY are disintegrated within a high-tech-appearing vortex interface.

References Edit

  1. Konami. Yu-Gi-Oh! Official Card Game - Perfect Rulebook 2015. p. 45. https://ygorganization.com/perfectrulebook/.
  2. https://ygorganization.com/learnrulingspart13/
  3. Tewart, Kevin (May 23, 2011). "Problem-Solving Card Text, Part 2: New Words & Phrases". Konami. https://yugiohblog.konami.com/articles/?p=2915. Retrieved July 28, 2011.
  4. YCS Mexico City: Top 8 Feature Match: Ismael Campos Altamirano vs. Salvador Molina Ochoa
  5. Yu-Gi-Oh! TRADING CARD GAME » Round 5 Feature Match: Astro Marc Hahn vs. Botanist Willie Newsome
  6. Public Event Prize Card Playoffs Semifinal: Jack Hoyt VS Matthew Abrams
  7. Yu-Gi-Oh! TRADING CARD GAME » Round 6 Feature Match: William Erker vs. David Sanville
Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.